Studies, Resources, Endorsements

In 2021, the University of North Carolina, Greensboro and Prevention Strategies completed its three year, multi-longitudinal evaluation of D.A.R.E.’s keepin’ it REAL elementary school prevention education curriculum.

The results of that study were submitted for peer review and publication to Public Library of Science (PLOS ONE), an inclusive journal community working together to advance science by making all rigorous research accessible without barriers.

On April 28, 2023, after completing its thorough peer review of the research, this highly respected journal, as well as the National Institute of Health’s National Library of Medicine, published its research article accepting and reporting the evaluation’s positive findings…

“When compared to virtual control cases, the program had identifiable improvements in both a key psychosocial measure and in terms of deterring the onset of 30-day alcohol use, drunkenness, and vaping. Outcomes suggest that the delivery of elementary school keepin’ it REAL by D.A.R.E. officers is having a positive effect in terms of deterring the onset of alcohol use and vaping.”

Parent & Educator Resources

D.A.R.E. Officer Resources

Articles & Studies on D.A.R.E.


keepin’ it REAL

An Evaluation of the “D.A.R.E.: keepin’ it REAL” Elementary School Program. Executive Summary, January 2022

Beamon, E. R., Henson, R. A., Kelly, S. E., Hansen, W. B., & Wyrick, D. L. (2023). Fidelity of D.A.R.E. Officers’ Delivery of “keepin’ it REAL” in Elementary & Middle School. Prevention science : the official journal of the Society for Prevention Research24(5), 985–998.

Day, L. Edward, Miller-Day, Michelle, Hecht, Michael L., Fehmie, Desiree. 2017. Coming to the new D.A.R.E.: A preliminary test of the officer-led elementary keepin’ it REAL curriculum. Addictive Behaviors. 74:67-73.

Hansen, W. B., Beamon, E. R., Saldana, S., Kelly, S., & Wyrick, D. L. (2023). D.A.R.E./keepin’ it REAL elementary curriculum: Substance use outcomes. PloS One, 18(4), e0284457.

Hecht, M.L., Marsiglia,F.F., Elek-Fisk, E., Wagstaff, D.A., Kulis, S., Dustman, P., Miller-Day, M. 2003. Culturally-grounded substance use prevention: An evaluation of keepin’ it R.E.A.L. curriculum. Prevention Science. 4:233-248.

Hecht, M.L., Graham, J.W., Elek, E. 2006. The Drug Resistance Strategies Intervention: Program effects on substance use. Health Communication. 20:267-276.

Kulis, S., Nieri, T., Yabiku, S.T., Nieri, T.A., Coleman, E. 2007. Promoting reduced and discontinued substance use among adolescent substance users: Effectiveness of a universal prevention program. Prevention Science. 37:123-144.

Marsiglia, F.F., Kulis, S., Yabiku, S.T., Nieri, T.A., Coleman, E. 2010. When to intervene: Elementary school, middle school or both? Effects of keepin’ it REAL on substance use trajectories of Mexican heritage youth. Prevention Science. 12:48-62.

Pettigrew, J., Graham, J.W., Miller-Day, M., Hecht, M.L., Krieger, J.L., Shin, Y. 2015. Adherence and delivery quality: Implementation quality and outcomes of 7th grade keepin’ it REAL program. Prevention Science. 16:90-99.

University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Prevention Strategies. 2022. Executive Summary. An Evaluation of the “D.A.R.E.: keepin’ it REAL
Elementary School Program.


Fearnow-Kenney, M., Wyrick, D.L., Milroy, J.J., Reifsteck, E., Kelly, S.E., Day, T.F. 2016. The effect of a web-based alcohol prevention program on social norms, expectancies, and intentions to prevent harm among college student-athletes. The Sport Psychologist

Lewis, T., Wyrick, D.L., Milroy, J.J., Hebard, S., Wachtel, K. (in Press). Profiles of binge and non-binge drinking student-athletes: The role of proximal norms, negative expectancies, and selected socio-demographic variables. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse.

Milroy, J.J., Orsini, M.M., Wyrick, D.L., Fearnow-Kenney, M., Kelly, S., Burley, J. 2015. A national study of the reasons for use and non-use of alcohol among college student athletes by sex, race, and NCAA division. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education. 59(1).

REAL Messages

Wahesh, E., Lewis, T., Wyrick, D.L., Borders, D., Ackerman, T. 2015. Perceived norms, outcome expectancies, and collegiate drinking: Examining the mediating role of drinking motives. Journal of Addictions and Offender Counseling. 36(2).

Banerjee, S.C., Greene, K. 2006. Analysis versus production: Adolescent cognitive and attitudinal responses to anti-smoking interventions. Journal of Communication. 56:773-794.

Banerjee, S.C., Greene, K. 2007. Anti-smoking initiatives: Effects of analysis versus production media literacy on smoking-related attitude, norm, and behavioral intention. Health Communication. 22:37-48.

Banerjee, S.C., Greene, K., Magsamen-Conrad, K., Elek, E., Hecht, M.L. 2015. Interpersonal communication outcomes of a media literacy alcohol prevention curriculum. Translational Behavioral Medicine. 5:425-432.

Miller, T., Hendrie, D. 2008. Substance Abuse Prevention Dollars and Cents: A Cost-Benefit Analysis. DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 07-4298. Rockville, MD: Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Coming to the new D.A.R.E.: A preliminary test of the officer-taught elementary keepin’ it REAL curriculum
Go to link (Science Direct)