Studies, Resources, Endorsements

Parent & Educator Resources

Articles & Studies on D.A.R.E.


keepin’ it REAL

An Evaluation of the “D.A.R.E.: keepin’ it REAL” Elementary School Program. Executive Summary, January 2022

Day, L. Edward, Miller-Day, Michelle, Hecht, Michael L., Fehmie, Desiree. 2017. Coming to the new D.A.R.E.: A preliminary test of the officer-led elementary keepin’ it REAL curriculum. Addictive Behaviors. 74:67-73.

Hansen, W. B., Beamon, E. R., Saldana, S., Kelly, S., & Wyrick, D. L. (2023). D.A.R.E./keepin’ it REAL elementary curriculum: Substance use outcomes. PloS One, 18(4), e0284457.

Hecht, M.L., Marsiglia,F.F., Elek-Fisk, E., Wagstaff, D.A., Kulis, S., Dustman, P., Miller-Day, M. 2003. Culturally-grounded substance use prevention: An evaluation of keepin’ it R.E.A.L. curriculum. Prevention Science. 4:233-248.

Hecht, M.L., Graham, J.W., Elek, E. 2006. The Drug Resistance Strategies Intervention: Program effects on substance use. Health Communication. 20:267-276.

Kulis, S., Nieri, T., Yabiku, S.T., Nieri, T.A., Coleman, E. 2007. Promoting reduced and discontinued substance use among adolescent substance users: Effectiveness of a universal prevention program. Prevention Science. 37:123-144.

Marsiglia, F.F., Kulis, S., Yabiku, S.T., Nieri, T.A., Coleman, E. 2010. When to intervene: Elementary school, middle school or both? Effects of keepin’ it REAL on substance use trajectories of Mexican heritage youth. Prevention Science. 12:48-62.

Pettigrew, J., Graham, J.W., Miller-Day, M., Hecht, M.L., Krieger, J.L., Shin, Y. 2015. Adherence and delivery quality: Implementation quality and outcomes of 7th grade keepin’ it REAL program. Prevention Science. 16:90-99.

University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Prevention Strategies. 2022. Executive Summary. An Evaluation of the “D.A.R.E.: keepin’ it REAL
Elementary School Program.


Fearnow-Kenney, M., Wyrick, D.L., Milroy, J.J., Reifsteck, E., Kelly, S.E., Day, T.F. 2016. The effect of a web-based alcohol prevention program on social norms, expectancies, and intentions to prevent harm among college student-athletes. The Sport Psychologist

Lewis, T., Wyrick, D.L., Milroy, J.J., Hebard, S., Wachtel, K. (in Press). Profiles of binge and non-binge drinking student-athletes: The role of proximal norms, negative expectancies, and selected socio-demographic variables. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse.

Milroy, J.J., Orsini, M.M., Wyrick, D.L., Fearnow-Kenney, M., Kelly, S., Burley, J. 2015. A national study of the reasons for use and non-use of alcohol among college student athletes by sex, race, and NCAA division. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education. 59(1).

REAL Messages

Wahesh, E., Lewis, T., Wyrick, D.L., Borders, D., Ackerman, T. 2015. Perceived norms, outcome expectancies, and collegiate drinking: Examining the mediating role of drinking motives. Journal of Addictions and Offender Counseling. 36(2).

Banerjee, S.C., Greene, K. 2006. Analysis versus production: Adolescent cognitive and attitudinal responses to anti-smoking interventions. Journal of Communication. 56:773-794.

Banerjee, S.C., Greene, K. 2007. Anti-smoking initiatives: Effects of analysis versus production media literacy on smoking-related attitude, norm, and behavioral intention. Health Communication. 22:37-48.

Banerjee, S.C., Greene, K., Magsamen-Conrad, K., Elek, E., Hecht, M.L. 2015. Interpersonal communication outcomes of a media literacy alcohol prevention curriculum. Translational Behavioral Medicine. 5:425-432.

Miller, T., Hendrie, D. 2008. Substance Abuse Prevention Dollars and Cents: A Cost-Benefit Analysis. DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 07-4298. Rockville, MD: Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Coming to the new D.A.R.E.: A preliminary test of the officer-taught elementary keepin’ it REAL curriculum
Go to link (Science Direct)